J Comp Psychol 118 (1), 2004:
S. R. Toukhsati and N. S. Rickard. 2004. Variations in Intensity
and Frequency Moderate the Facilitative Effects of a Complex
Rhythm Stimulus on Long-Term Memory Consolidation in the
Day-Old Chick (Gallus gallus). pp. 65-70.
Abstract: The authors have previously shown that exposure to 1
min of a complex, but not an isochronous, rhythm stimulus
facilitates long-term memory consolidation in chicks (Gallus
gallus) trained on a passive-avoidance task (S. R. Toukhsati &
N. S. Rickard, 2001). The acoustic parameters of this stimulus
were explored further in the current study. Retention was found
to be best facilitated when the complex rhythm stimulus was
presented at intensities between 5 and 15 dBA above
background laboratory noise levels and at a frequency of 1 kHz.
Removal of an accent from the stimulus did not moderate the
effect. These findings provide confirmation that memory in an
avian species can be facilitated by exposure to a complex
rhythm stimulus and suggest that pattern repetition may be an
important feature of this effect.
M. M. Myers, N. Ali, A. Weller, S. A. Brunelli, A. Y. Tu, M.
A. Hofer, and H. N. Shair. 2004. Brief Maternal Interaction
Increases Number, Amplitude, and Bout Size of Isolation-
Induced Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Infant Rats (Rattus
norvegicus). pp. 95-102.
Abstract: The number, amplitude, duration, and bout structure
of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) of infant
rats (Rattus norvegicus) were measured on postnatal Day 10.
Measurements were made before and after a brief, 1-min,
active interaction with their mother or before and after a "pick-
up" control procedure. Consistent with prior studies, the
number of USVs emitted was significantly increased in the
period following the maternal reunion but not after the control
procedure. The average amplitude of USVs was also greater
following maternal reunion. Finally, analyses characterizing the
bout structure of USV production indicated that the average
bout size (i.e.. number of USVs/bout) was increased
severalfold following the reunion with the mother, accounting
for the greater rate of USV production during the second
J Comp Psychol 118 (2):
G. D. Reynolds and R.Lickliter. 2004. Modified Prenatal
Sensory Stimulation Influences Postnatal Behavioral and
Perceptual Responsiveness in Bobwhite Quail Chicks (Colinus
virginianus). pp. 172?178.
Abstract: Asynchronous bimodal stimulation during prenatal
development elicits higher levels of behavioral and
physiological arousal in precocial avian embryos than does
unimodal sensory stimulation. To investigate whether the
increased arousal associated with prenatal bimodal stimulation
has enduring effects into postnatal development, bobwhite
quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos received no supplemental
stimulation, unimodal auditory stimulation, or bimodal
(audiovisual) stimulation prior to hatching. Embryos exposed
to concurrent bimodal stimulation demonstrated greater levels
of behavioral activity and failed to use maternal visual cues to
successfully direct species-specific perceptual preferences
following hatching. These results provide initial evidence that
asynchronous bimodal sensory stimulation during prenatal
development can have enduring effects on early postnatal
behavioral arousal and perceptual responsiveness and suggest
that developmental limitations on prenatal sensory stimulation
play an important role in the emergence of species-typical
C. Poirier, L. Henry, M. Mathelier, S. Lumineau, H. Cousillas,
and Martine Hausberger. 2004. Direct Social Contacts Override
Auditory Information in the Song-Learning Process in Starlings
(Sturnus vulgaris). pp. 179?193.
Abstract: Social influence on song acquisition was studied in 3
groups of young European starlings raised under different
social conditions but with the same auditory experience of
adult song. Attentional focusing on preferred partners appears
the most likely explanation for differences found in song
acquisition in relation to experience, sex, and song categories.
Thus, pair-isolated birds learned from each other and not from
broadcast live songs, females did not learn from the adult male
tutors, and sharing occurred more between socially associated
peers. On the contrary, single-isolated birds clearly copied the
adult songs that may have been the only source of attention
stimulation. Therefore, social preference appears as both a
motor for song learning and a potential obstacle for acquisition
from nonpreferred partners, including adults.
K. A. Phillips, L. M. Shauver Goodchild, M. E. Haas, M. J.
Ulyan, and St. Petro. 2004. Use of Visual, Acoustic, and
Olfactory Information During Embedded Invertebrate Foraging
in Brown Capuchins (Cebus apella).
Abstract: Experiments were conducted to investigate which
sensory cues are used by brown capuchins (Cebus apella) in
embedded invertebrate foraging. The importance of visual,
olfactory, and acoustic cues in such foraging was determined
by presenting subjects with a stimulus log modified to block
out given sensory cues. Experiment 1 was designed to
investigate whether subjects could locate an invertebrate
embedded in wood when only visual, acoustic, or olfactory
information was available. Experiments 2 and 3 were designed
to investigate extractive foraging behavior when two sensory
cues were provided. It was hypothesized that the combination
of visual and acoustic information would be necessary for
subjects to successfully locate embedded invertebrates. Results
indicated that subjects' performance was most successful when
both visual and acoustic information was available.
J. Call. 2004. Inferences About the Location of Food in the
Great Apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla,
and Pongo pygmaeus). pp. 232?241.
Abstract: Bonobos (Pan paniscus; n = 4), chimpanzees (Pan
troglodytes; n = 12), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla; n = 8), and
orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; n = 6) were presented with 2
cups (1 baited) and given visual or auditory information about
their contents. Visual information consisted of letting subjects
look inside the cups. Auditory information consisted of shaking
the cup so that the baited cup produced a rattling sound.
Subjects correctly selected the baited cup both when they saw
or heard the food. Nine individuals were above chance in both
visual and auditory conditions. More important, subjects as a
group selected the baited cup when only the empty cup was
either shown or shaken, which means that subjects chose
correctly without having seen or heard the food (i.e., inference
by exclusion). Control tests showed that subjects were not more
attracted to noisy cups, avoided shaken noiseless cups, or
learned to use auditory information as a cue during the study. It
is concluded that subjects understood that the food caused the
noise, not simply that the noise was associated with the food.
Dr. Lidia Eva Wysocki
Institute of Zoology, University of Vienna
A-1090 Vienna, Austria
E-mail: [EMAIL PROTECTED]