Re: Foot anatomy question

To: "Peter Shute" <>
Subject: Re: Foot anatomy question
From: "Philip Veerman" <>
Date: Sat, 24 Feb 2007 11:16:20 +1100
Hi Peter,

Just one answer. You asked about "Pelecaniformes have all four toes joined in a 
web, but that does not mean all four toes face forward. The web is very broad 
and so the outer toes (1 and 4) face pretty much inwards and outwards. So 
perhaps that counts as two forward and two back.  If so, then it's either 
Zygodactyl or Heterodactyl, depending on just which toes are pointing back.  
Could be thumb and next, or could be thumb and last (I think)."

No you don't need to cut one up, just look at it.  It is the big toe or what 
would ordinarily be on most birds, the hind toe (sorry to say the obvious, it 
is not the thumb, which is the alula on the wing) and the last toe, i.e. toes 1 
& 4. I'd suggest the idea that all are joined in a web sort of makes irrelevant 
whether the outer two face forward or back.


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