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paper on sound production of the grey gurnard

Subject: paper on sound production of the grey gurnard
From: Clara Amorim <>
Date: Tue, 14 Sep 2004 12:38:15 -0700 id i8E9eboW028209
 The following paper is available.  Please feel free to contact me 
 Amorim et al. (2004). Sound production during competitive feeding in the
 grey gurnard. Journal of Fish Biology 65, 182-194 
 The acoustic repertoire of captive grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus, during
 competitive feeding consisted of three types of sounds: knocks, grunts and
 growls. Knocks were audible as a single sound, whereas grunts and growls
 were perceived as longer, pulsed sounds to the human ear. Typically, knocks
 were composed of 1-2 pulses, grunts of 4-8 and growls of more than 10
 pulses. Growls were longer and had shorter pulse periods than grunts. All
 sound types had peak frequencies around 500 Hz. The sequences of behaviours
 observed during feeding interactions suggest that grey gurnards obtain food
 both by scramble and contest tactics. Competing fish emitted knocks mainly
 while grasping a food item, and also during other non-agonistic behaviour,
 suggesting that knock production may reflect a state of feeding arousal but
 could also serve as a warning of the forager's presence to nearby
 competitors. Grunts were mainly emitted during frontal displays, which were
 the most frequent behavioural act preceding grasps, suggesting that they
 may play a role in deterring other fish from gaining access to disputed
 food items.

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